A deficiency in vitamin K has been associated with increased calcium deposition and coronary artery calcification, which may lead to cardiovascular disease.
To determine the effectiveness of vitamin K supplementation as a single nutrient supplement for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
The study examined two doses of menaquinone (vitamin K2) over 3 months in healthy participants aged 40 to 65 years. The primary focus of the trial was to examine the effects of menaquinone (subtype MK7) on different matrix Gla proteins (MGP - vitamin K dependent proteins in the vessel wall) at different doses, but the authors also reported blood pressure and lipid levels. The trial did not report on our primary outcomes (cardiovascular disease clinical events) as it was small, short term and conducted in healthy participants.In terms of cardiovascular disease risk factors, no effects were seen for vitamin K2 on blood pressure or lipid levels, although the trial was small and findings are limited. The trial did not report any of our other secondary outcomes.